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Learn Python For Data Science (Course I)

Learn Python For Data Science (Course I)

Standard Libraries in Python

This chapter gives you a basic overview of the different standard libraries of Python.

The Python Standard Library is a collection of script modules accessible to a Python program to simplify the programming process and removing the need to rewrite commonly used commands. They can be used by ‘calling/importing’ them at the beginning of a script. Generally, these standard libraries are installed alongside Python as packages by Python installers.

Here is a list of some of the standard libraries that are generally used in Python. Familiarity with these libraries is extremely helpful in repetitive tasks and commonly occurring problems.

  • os module provides dozens of functions for interacting with the operating system.
  • shutil module provides a higher-level interface on files and collections of files that is easier to use.
  • glob module provides a function for making file lists from directory wildcard searches.
  • argparse module provides a more sophisticated mechanism to process command-line arguments.
  • re module provides regular expression tools for advanced string processing. For complex matching and manipulation, regular expressions offer succinct, optimized solutions.
  • math module gives access to the underlying C library functions for floating-point math.
  • random module provides tools for making random selections.
  • statistics module calculates basic statistical properties (the mean, median, variance, etc.) of numeric data.
  • datetime module supplies classes for manipulating dates and times in both simple and complex ways.
  • Common data archiving and compression formats are directly supported by modules including: zlib, gzip, bz2, lzma, zipfile and tarfile.
  • timeit module quickly demonstrates a modest performance advantage.
  • doctest module provides a tool for scanning a module and validating tests embedded in a program’s docstrings.
  • unittest module is not as effortless as the doctest module, but it allows a more comprehensive set of tests to be maintained in a separate file.
  • reprlib module provides a version of repr() customized for abbreviated displays of large or deeply nested containers.
  • pprint module offers more sophisticated control over printing both built-in and user-defined objects in a way that is readable by the interpreter.
  • textwrap module formats paragraphs of text to fit a given screen width.
  • threading module can run tasks in the background while the main program continues to run.
  • decimal module offers a Decimal datatype for decimal floating-point arithmetic.

The libraries listed above are some of the libraries provided by Python. You can always refer to the official documentation to get a list of all the standard libraries in Python for different tasks.

In the upcoming chapter of this course, we will be discussing on how to set up a proper programming environment for importing and using libraries that are not a part of the Standard Library through Virtual Environments and Packages in Python.

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